I love to read, and when I’m not reading about nonprofits, philanthropy, and social innovation, I like to read pretty far outside that world to get a new perspective. In the last few months, four books in particular altered my worldview in pretty fundamental ways. And although these four books don’t discuss the social change sector, I share them with you because I think they hold real insight for social change leaders.
Steven Pressfield wrote this groundbreaking book in 2003 as way to help artists move beyond their blocks and create the art they were put on earth to make. But really this book is about much more. It is for anyone who struggles to find your true calling. For those of us working on social change, it’s a hard, hard, hard battle every single day. This book helps you determine exactly what your contribution is supposed to be and how to move beyond the barriers keeping you from making it happen. “Our job in this life is not to shape ourselves into some ideal we imagine we ought to be, but to find out who we already are and become it.” This book will help you get there.
I know, there’s been much controversy about Sheryl Sandberg’s feminist manifesto about how women need to take charge of their careers. Honestly, I don’t really get the controversy because I think confidence (essentially what she is talking about) is a prerequisite to accomplishing anything in life. If you are only partially sure that you are where you need to be, and if you are only weakly asking for the change you seek, and if you are only mildly suggesting that people to join you, it won’t happen. This book could almost be about the nonprofit sector standing up and demanding to take their rightful seat at the table of economic growth, social change, public policy. “We hold ourselves back in ways both big and small, by lacking self-confidence, by not raising our hands, and by pulling back when we should be leaning in.” Come on social change leaders, Lean In!
Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking
A book about introverts may seem out of place in this list, but I found it tremendously insightful. I fluctuate between being an introvert and an extrovert, and I’m not a huge fan of labels, but Susan Cain helps you understand that your qualities are a tool to use in your work. As a social change leader, you must understand and tap into your unique skills and abilities (whatever they may be) in order to make real change happen. “We know from myths and fairy tales that there are many different kinds of powers in this world. One child is given a light saber, another a wizard’s education. The trick is not to amass all the different kinds of power, but to use well the kind you’ve been granted.” I loved the quiet wisdom of this book – it really makes you think, which introverts often encourage us to do.
The Big Enough Company
This book is targeted to women entrepreneurs, which is why it originally appealed to me. But really, it redefines entrepreneurship. Adelaide Lancaster and Amy Abrams argue that the right business model is the one that fits your goals and passions. You should never make strategic decisions based on what people think you “should” be doing. And I would extend that to social change efforts as well, which are often led by a single individual who recognizes a problem and is passionate about a solution. Along the way they are told how “impossible” their solution is. But it’s critical to hold fast to your passion and build momentum around it. “It’s easy to let popular advice cloud your vision and confuse your goals, losing sight of what you sought to achieve in the first place…Deep down, we know better. We know that the real goal isn’t size (necessarily); it’s success. ”
These four books did what I think good writing should do, they made me really think (long after the last page) about my assumptions, my behavior, and the barriers standing in my way. They encouraged me to recalibrate and emerge stronger and (I hope!) more savvy.
What books have you read lately that made you think about your work differently? Please add to the list in the comments.
Asking the right questions is absolutely essential to creating social change. I’ve written before (here and here) about the importance and kinds of questions nonprofits should be asking. I am a huge believer in smart, hard questions.
Which is why I loved Bill Shore’s recent post in the Chronicle of Philanthropy. He encourages nonprofits to ask one simple, yet profound question: “What Does Success Look Like?” Which is very similar to Mario Morino’s question, “To What End?“, encouraging nonprofits to determine the ultimate goal of their work.
We are increasingly (I hope) asking nonprofits to get more strategic about their work, so that instead of spinning wheels, we are actually solving social problems. So Bill’s is an incredibly critical question.
But it is only the starting point.
Once a nonprofit knows what they are ultimately trying to accomplish, there are three critical questions they must next ask. And these are:
What is our strategy for getting there?
Unfortunately it’s not as simple as Bill makes it seem (and he would probably agree). You can’t simply set an end goal, and yell “Go!” You need a strategy for getting there, because there are many ways to get from point A to point B. The trick is figuring out what the right strategy is given your core competencies and the external environment in which you work. Because you cannot get to point B by doing something you are no good at, or something someone else does better, or something that won’t solve the problem.
What is the most effective and sustainable model to get there?
This is a piece that is sorely lacking in most of the nonprofit sector. Once you have figured out what you want to accomplish, you must figure out how you can structure your resources (money, staff, volunteers, board, advocates, assets) in a way that puts them to their highest and best use and actually ends up accomplishing your end goal. That’s a business model, and it includes staffing, financing, marketing and so on. And few nonprofits have a smart, strategic, sustainable business model behind their work.
What people and networks do we need with us?
Nonprofits have to stop trying to convince anyone and everyone to join their cause. You must be strategic about analyzing your end goal and your strategy for getting there and then determining what people, organizations, networks you need in order to execute effectively. So instead of assembling a board of warm bodies, you want to think about exactly what kinds of people, what kinds of networks, what kinds of expertise you need to move forward. And beyond assembling the right board, you need to assemble the right advisors, partners, alliances, advocates, decision makers, followers. In order to reach your end goal, you must marshal a whole army of people with specific, key assets. But you won’t build that army without first figuring out what the army should look like.
These are not easy questions. And finding the right answers is hard, hard work. Often it is challenging enough to get a diverse group of people (board, staff, funders) to agree on a common end goal, let alone to agree on all the steps and structures necessary to get there. But the alternative is to simply continue to spin your wheels while our challenges grow.
So start asking some hard questions.
Photo credit: Oberazzi
ArtsFwd, an interactive online platform where arts leaders can learn from each other about the power of adaptive change and the practice of innovation, is holding a first-ever National Innovation Summit for Arts + Culture October 20th-23rd in Denver and online. (I interviewed the head of ArtsFwd, Karina Mangu-Ward, on the blog in 2012 and co-led a Chronicle of Philanthropy Live Chat about connecting money and mission with her last spring.)
The National Innovation Summit for Arts + Culture will bring together arts leaders from around the world to explore the challenges, discoveries, and achievements of daring to depart from traditional approaches. Although the Summit will take place in Denver there is also a robust virtual component. The on-site conference will bring together 250 pioneering arts leaders and funders from 14 communities who were selected based on their track record of innovation and well-developed adaptive capacities.
But the Virtual Summit is open to everyone. All 27 powerful Summit Talks will be available via livestream. The dynamic series of thematically linked 12-minute talks by bold leaders from across the country will highlight the remarkable and mostly untold stories of innovative projects unfolding in arts and culture organizations.
The themes are:
- Taking Collective Action (6p ET on 10/20)
- Co-Creating with the Public (11a ET on 10/21)
- Artists as Agents of Change (1p ET on 10/21)
- Animating Neighborhoods (5:30p ET on 10/21)
- Citizenship and the Arts (11a ET on 10/22)
- Transforming Organizational Structure (5:30p ET on 10/22)
I will be leading an online discussion in the Transforming Organizational Structure theme. In this theme, six speakers will each spend 12 minutes talking about their stories of radical restructuring inside their organizations, including new staffing structures, the creation of innovation capital, embracing risk, and redefining the meaning of success in order to support innovation. Some of the speakers include Susan Medak, Managing Director of Berkeley Repertory Theatre; Steven Matijcio, Curator of Contemporary Arts Center Cincinnati; and Lori Fogarty, Director and CEO of Oakland Museum of California.
Instead of asking the question, “How do we survive?” these arts leaders asked the question “What do we want to accomplish and how can we rethink our work to get there?”
The Transforming Organizational Structures theme is all about breaking free from small thinking. Small thinking handcuffs organizations to the ways things have always been done, the staffing structures that have worked before, financial models that once were profitable, programs that used to draw an audience. In order to stay relevant and continue to make an impact in our communities, arts organizations increasingly need to scrap the old structures and reinvent themselves.
This is not easy work, by a long shot.
So I am eager to hear these arts leaders talk about how they stayed true to larger, longer-term goals while throwing out old structures. How they found consensus around an ultimate goal and then began to build structure around it. And how they found funding for this transformational work. Arts organizations are notoriously resource constrained, which often breeds an aversion to risk. So I look forward to hearing how these organizations broke free from that risk aversion and found a way to innovate forward.
At the end of the six talks, I will lead an online discussion among the group. My questions will include:
- What elements need to be in place in order to completely rethink organizational structure and purpose?
- How can organizations move away from thinking about structure and instead think about the ultimate end goal of the work?
- How do we move beyond the inherent risk-aversion of a financially strapped sector in order to embrace innovation?
- How do we convince funders that risk and innovation are worth funding?
The National Innovation Summit for Arts + Culture promises to open our minds to new possibilities and ways forward. To participate in the Virtual Summit, register here.
I hope to see you there!
It used to be that a nonprofit leader receiving a check from a donor would smile politely, say a big “Thank You” and go on her way. But just as (seemingly) every aspect of the world as we know it is changing, so too is philanthropy. We are starting to question long-held assumptions about how money is given and how it should be spent.
As a nonprofit leader, if you want to start securing and using money in a more strategic way, if you want to move from fundraising to financing, you need to bring your donors along with you.
It is up to you to enlighten your major donors about how they can use money more effectively. So that instead of being merely the recipient of your donors’ largesse, you become a true partner in putting their money to work for real social change, which is today’s topic in the ongoing Financing Not Fundraising blog series.
The Financing Not Fundraising blog series encourages nonprofits to move from the exhausting hamster wheel of fundraising to a long-term, sustainable financing strategy for their work. You can read the entire series here.
We simply can’t sit around and wait for philanthropists to suddenly understand the hurdles nonprofits face. So the next time you meet with a major donor (an individual, foundation or corporate donor with whom you have a one-on-one relationship), make time to have a deeper, different conversation aimed at enlightening them about the realities you face.
Here are some ways to start that conversation with your donors:
“Overhead Isn’t a Dirty Word Anymore.”
The notion that “overhead” expenses, like administrative and fundraising costs, are unseemly in the nonprofit sector is becoming antiquated. Instead there is a growing effort to evaluate nonprofits based on the results they achieve, not the way they spend their money. And effective nonprofits need strong organizations behind their work. Take some time to educate your closest donors about this growing movement to support all aspects (including staffing, systems, technology) of a nonprofit organization.
“These Are The Hurdles Standing In Our Way.”
Let’s face it, most nonprofits struggle with some key organizational challenges. Perhaps you struggle to secure sustainable funding; or you can’t recruit and engage an effective board; or you want to grow, but lack an effective growth plan. Whatever your challenges are, start being more open with your funders about those challenges. It is a risky conversation, to be sure. But I bet that your long-term funders have probably already recognized some of those roadblocks, and your open and honest approach to facing them might start a new conversation about solutions.
“Here Are Some Solutions to Those Hurdles.”
You don’t want simply to tell your donors a laundry list of woes. As my mother always said “Don’t come to me with your problems, come to me with your solutions.” So before you tell your close donors what is holding you back, do your research about how you might overcome those hurdles. If you struggle to bring enough money in the door, perhaps a Financial Model Assessment could help. If you can’t effectively track and communicate with donors, you may need new technology and systems. If you don’t have enough staff to grow your programs, analyze the additional expertise you need and calculate how much it would cost. Put together a thoughtful plan for how you can overcome the obstacles you face.
“Here is How You Can Help.”
Which brings me to the key conversation you need to have to enlighten your donors. You cannot execute on a change plan if you don’t have the resources to do so. That’s where your key donors come in. If you’ve spent the time educating them about organization-building, the key obstacles in your way, and your plan for overcoming those obstacles, then the next logical step is to ask them for help. If you have invested them in the need and direction for change, you are ready to ask them to invest in the solution.
I know it’s difficult for nonprofits and their major donors to have open and honest conversations. But we will never move forward if nonprofit leaders don’t start initiating some difficult, but potentially game-changing conversations with their donors. Indeed, effective social change depends on it.
Fall is here (at least by my calendar!) and that means new opportunities to spark conversation about how the nonprofit sector is changing and how nonprofit leaders, board members and donors need to as well.
In recent months I’ve spoken in Phoenix, New York, Washington DC, Atlanta, and Australia (via Google). And what all of these events had in common is that the audience was hungry for a new way forward.
What I love most about speaking is that it’s a chance to really open eyes to new ways of thinking. And I love, love, love engaging with the audience to challenge their assumptions and former ways of operating.
For example, at an event last month a board member and I got into a lively debate about whether board members should really be bothering with the money raising aspects of their nonprofit. His argument was that it’s the job of the board to focus on big picture mission and programs, not the day-to-day dollar concerns of the organization. My argument, no surprise, is that you cannot separate mission from money and every board member should play a role in the financial engine of the nonprofit.
As we continued to debate, the board member admitted that he actually had helped to open a door to a significant (tens of thousands of dollars) contract for the nonprofit. So in essence he was arguing against what he’d actually helped bring about. Through the discussion he came to realize that if every board member were asked to tap into their skills, experience and networks to accelerate the financial health of the nonprofit (as he himself had already done) it could be transformational.
I love those light bulb moments.
The reality is that often nonprofits exist in a series of catch-22s where board members don’t know how to help, nonprofit leaders don’t know how to get board members moving, funders don’t know the questions to ask, and nonprofits don’t know how to identify their constraints. So we keep having the same conversations over and over again with little change.
Which is why I love to speak to groups and shake up these stale conversations.
Here are some of the most popular topics people invite me to speak about:
Financing not Fundraising
Based on the popular blog series, Financing Not Fundraising, I show nonprofits a new, more effective way to fund their work. I explain concrete ways to move efforts to raise money in a totally new direction, resulting in more money flowing through the doors, a more engaged and effective board, a more energized and integrated staff and ultimately more achievement of mission.
The Future of the Nonprofit Sector
The nonprofit sector and the philanthropy that fund it are changing dramatically. A growing convergence between the nonprofit, for-profit and government sectors is altering how social change happens and increasing competition is forcing nonprofits to shift the way they have always done business. Nonprofit leaders must understand trends and embrace change to emerge stronger and more effective.
The Power of a Theory of Change
A theory of change is an argument for why a nonprofit exists. It is the fundamental building block to creating a strategic direction, measuring your work, garnering more support and ultimately creating more impact in your community. Funders, regulators and others are increasingly demanding that nonprofits demonstrate how their work creates community change. I show nonprofits how to create a theory of change and then use it to drive greater support, engagement and success.
Jump Starting Your Board
A nonprofit’s board is often not doing as much as they could to bring money in the door. I take the fear and inaction out of raising money. I show board and staff how money works in the nonprofit sector, where the board can be most effective, how to get the board excited and engaged in fundraising, and the concrete steps to get them moving.
You can see a more complete list of my speaking topics, past speaking events, and videos on the Speaking page of the website.
If you want to start having new, transformational conversations, invite me to come speak. I’d love it!
In today’s Social Velocity interview, I’m talking with Ted Levinson. Ted is the Director of Lending at RSF Social Finance, a San Francisco-based financial services non-profit dedicated to transforming the way the world works with money. Levinson manages RSF’s flagship $75 million Social Investment Fund which provides debt capital to US and Canadian social enterprises.
You can read past interviews in the Social Innovation Interview Series here.
Nell: RSF Social Finance is really the leader in the social finance market, you’ve been doing this long before anyone started talking about a “social capital marketplace.” Given that long history, how do you view the current state of the social capital market? Are we where we need to be to funnel enough and the right kinds of capital to social change efforts? And if not, how do we get there?
Ted: RSF has a twenty-nine year operating history, but it’s still early days for the field of social finance. The industry is at the same stage of development as natural food stores were thirty years ago – we’re established, we’re growing, we’re doing good work, and yet we’re still considered a fringe movement. I believe we are on the cusp of mainstream acceptance which will mean a much broader audience of impact investors (especially young people and unaccredited investors) and far greater demand for social capital from the growing number of social enterprises that are just now becoming investment-ready.
There’s been a shift in society’s view of natural food stores – we’ve overcome our fear of the bulk bins and now all grocery stores look more like natural food stores. I expect the same thing to happen with our conventional financial institutions which are just now beginning to pay attention to social finance.
What the field really needs is to expand the financial products available to social enterprises and address some of the existing gaps. Frustrated social entrepreneurs may disagree, but I think the angel capital and large-scale venture capital spaces are meeting the needs of for-profits. Incubators, business plan competitions and seed funds are providing modest amounts of funding to emerging non-profits and for-profits. RSF and some of our friends including Nonprofit Finance Fund, Calvert and New Resource Bank are addressing the middle market market.
The big voids in social finance include:
- True “risk capital” for non-profit social enterprises. We need more foundations willing to place bets on high-potential organizations.
- Bigger finance players or (better yet) a more robust consortium of social finance organizations that can band together to meet the $5 million + needs of high growth social enterprises such as Evergreen Lodge, Playworks and other organizations that are reaching scale.
I believe the field will get there but we’re playing “catch-up” now and social entrepreneurs are an impatient bunch.
Nell: RSF does something pretty revolutionary in that you combine philanthropic giving with impact investing, whereas these two sides of the social capital marketplace have not yet really found a way to work together in any large scale or significant way. Why do you think that is? And what needs to change in order to encourage foundations and impact investors to work more closely together?
Ted: We call our approach of combining debt and philanthropic dollars “integrated capital,” and we think it’s going to have a profound effect on impact investors, philanthropists and the social enterprises it serves.
Most non-profit social enterprises rely on a combination of earned revenue and gift money. There’s no reason why a single transaction can’t bridge these two forms of capital. With integrated capital we can leverage philanthropic grants or loan guarantees to push high-impact loan prospects from the “just barely declined” category into the “approved” category. In fact, even some for-profit social enterprises are eligible for this. Our loan to EcoScraps – a fast-growing, national, composting business was made possible by a foundation that shared in some of RSF’s risk.
Integrated capital is possible because RSF works with individuals and foundations that have overcome the prevailing view that how you invest your money and how you give are distinct activities. We’re also fortunate to work with an enlightened bunch of people who recognize that philanthropic support for social enterprises isn’t a crutch or a sign of a failed enterprise.
Our work at RSF is driven by a belief that money ought to serve the highest intentions of the human spirit. Conscientiously investing money, giving money and spending money can all further this goal.
Nell: What do you make of the emerging social impact bond movement? Is this a social finance vehicle that you think will work?
Ted: I’m deeply hopeful and deeply skeptical of the future of social impact bonds. I’m hopeful because our government is notoriously risk-adverse and slow to adopt new ways of improving education, reducing recidivism, or curbing our runaway health care costs. I think spending money on early interventions could go a long ways towards improving these fields societal challenges, but paying now to save in the future is at loggerheads with the short-term view which prevails in politics. Social impact bonds are a clever way to push the risk on to investors who are willing to take a longer view for the potential of a big upside.
I’m also a fan because social impact bonds are an alternative to the financial engineering which brought us collateralized debt obligations. They demonstrate that Wall Street doesn’t have a monopoly on financial innovation.
That being said, I’m skeptical that this market can ever reach a stage where transactions costs can drop enough to make it economically viable. Bringing together the multiple parties that are required for such a transaction (the government, the investor, the non-profit, a monitoring entity, a social finance organization, an attorney and possibly a foundation) just seems unaffordable to me.
Nell: What sets the nonprofits and social enterprises you invest in apart? What characteristics do you look for in the investments you make?
Ted: All of our borrowers fall into one or more of three focus areas – sustainable food systems, the environment and education & the arts. These borrowers all have capable, committed management who recognize that financial sustainability is a prerequisite for lasting change. Our best borrowers have strong communities supporting them whether it is donors, customers or suppliers.
Evaluating these stakeholders is a key component of our underwriting process at RSF.
Our experience demonstrates that performance improves when social enterprises engage all of their stakeholders. RSF’s long-standing support of fair trade is an example of this commitment. We also regularly expect borrowers to solicit their community members to join RSF’s investor community as a precondition to approval. We take community seriously at RSF!
Our borrowers are all addressing major social or environmental problems such as a lack of adequate housing for developmentally disabled adults (Foundation for the Challenged), inefficiencies in the wind industry (FrontierPro) and poverty and environmental degradation from rice farming (Lotus Foods.) As social enterprises, they’re primary activities are DIRECTLY making the world a better place. We believe our borrowers have the potential to scale their organizations and make a real dent in these problems, or become a model for others to do the same.
For example, we were one of the first lenders to Revolution Foods when they were operating out of a defunct fast food restaurant in Alameda, CA. Today they deliver over 200,000 healthy meals a day to public school children.
Similarly, we think DC Central Kitchen’s model of combining culinary training for adults with barriers to employment with a robust meals business (they deliver 5,000 meals a day to schools and homeless shelters) is a winning approach that can be replicated throughout the country.
Nell: Some have argued that nonprofit leaders lack a level of sophistication when it comes to financial strategy and use of financial tools. Obviously you find nonprofits and social enterprises that are able to effectively employ sophisticated financial vehicles, so how do you respond to that argument?
Ted: Rather than argue I prefer to let the results of our borrowers speak for themselves. DePaul Industries, for example, is a $30 million non-profit that employs over a thousand disabled Oregonians. The Portland Business Journal ranked them one of the most admired companies in the state and they did this all with 98% earned revenue. Network for Good processes over $150 million of online donations every year while Digital Divide Data has a decade of year over year revenue growth in the field of impact outsourcing.
I see no lack of financial sophistication in the non-profit sector. I do, however, see a lack of risk-taking, which can sometimes be misinterpreted as unsophistication when compared with the for-profit world. It’s a shame this mentality is so pervasive because of the importance and urgency of the work that so many non-profits do. Many icons of industry have biographies filled with risky expansion, leverage, false starts and failures. We need to de-stigmatize failure in the non-profit sector and adopt that same boldness which has led to so many of the biggest successes in the commercial world.
As kids across the country head back to school this month I thought I’d share a great video that my son’s English teacher had them watch. It is an “Open Letter to Students Returning to School”, but in essence it is an engaging and energizing endorsement of public education. It is targeted to this current generation of American students with the aim of helping them understand the unique opportunity they, and we, have been given with public education.
How we educate this next generation is really about the future of our country and our world. And I found this video incredibly inspiring. Education, at its core, is the ultimate social innovation, isn’t it?
There is a growing drumbeat lately (for starters here, here and here) that nonprofits must be more bold. I couldn’t agree more and have argued that nonprofit fear and small thinking sometimes hold them back. But it is becoming increasingly obvious to me that if we want to get better at solving social problems, we have to ask philanthropist to be more bold too.
And I’m heartened to see this conversation starting to emerge. The Letter to the Donors of America, the Donor Forum’s Real Talk About Real Costs effort, Dan Cardinali’s request that philanthropists fund the “unsexy” work of nonprofit capacity building, Rebecca Thomas encouraging funders to support nonprofit resilience, and Ben Powell’s idea that philanthropy provide more start-up capital all add to the philanthropy reform discussion. I love it!
But I want to see the idea that philanthropy can be so much more move beyond talk.
There is a huge disconnect between what nonprofits really, truly need to solve social problems and how funding currently flows. We are locked in a chicken or the egg scenario where often a nonprofit working to solve a social problem encounters some major capacity constraints. For example, a nonprofit doesn’t know how to:
- Create a sustainable financial model
- Effectively grow their solution
- Structure their board and staff for success
- Strategically filter opportunities
- Engage key outside elements in the change effort
And quite often they don’t know how to move past these capacity constraints.
At the same time, philanthropists may recognize that a grantee is encountering some significant hurdles, but doesn’t know how (or is unwilling) to invest in overcoming those hurdles. So the constraints remain unmoved.
But what if nonprofits and philanthropists could start working together to move those hurdles?
What if instead of getting in the way, philanthropists started paving the way?
Philanthropy could provide the critical infusion of the right kind of organization-building money at the right time thereby allowing a great solution to grow.
To me, that’s bold philanthropy.
But how do we get there? Philanthropists need to change in some fundamental ways:
Move to Impact
Just as we are increasingly asking nonprofits to move to impact, philanthropists need to do the same. Instead of tracking outputs (# of grantees, $s given), foundations need to start tracking whether their investments result in change to 1) their grantees and 2) the problems those grantees address. Just as we are starting to ask nonprofits “To What End?” we need to ask funders the very same question.
Help Diagnose the Constraints
Once philanthropists start getting clear about what they want to change and whether their investments are actually resulting in change, they need to become cognizant of the hurdles standing in the way of that change. And I will tell you that there are some almost universal hurdles in the nonprofit sector (lack of management expertise, poor leadership development, board disengagement, financial instability). So if a philanthropist really wants to see change to a social problem, he needs to get clear about what those he is investing in need to make that change a reality.
Invest in Removing Those Constraints
But it simply is not enough for funders to recognize that those they fund have very specific and tangible organizational needs. Those funders then must put their money where their mouth is. More philanthropists need to invest in building stronger, more effective, more sustainable solutions. They need to provide more capacity capital, money to build an effective, sustainable nonprofit that can grow impact.
We have only scratched the surface on what philanthropy can do to solve social problems. But I am optimistic that we can fundamentally change philanthropy so that it increasingly provides the capacity capital the sector so desperately needs.
Photo Credit: Jeffrey Beall
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