In the nonprofit sector the words “leader” and “manager” are sometimes tossed around interchangeably. But the fact is that they are two very different, and equally necessary, elements to an effective and sustainable nonprofit organization.
A leader provides an inspiring, motivating big strategy for staff and board to get behind. She asks hard questions and constantly pushes the organization and its people to do more, try harder, expand their reach, think bigger. A leader makes sure that people are engaged and invested in the work and creates a team environment where each person feels part of something much larger than herself. And in this way, a leader inspires board and staff to do more and be more than they ever thought possible.
Whereas, a manager creates systems that allow the organization to get things done and holds board and staff accountable. He makes sure that everyone knows what they are supposed to be doing and where they are supposed to be, has the tools they need to get the job done, and is held responsible for their part. The manager executes the path that the leader has articulated.
So in an ideal scenario, the two — leader and manager — work as a perfect team. One strategizes, propels, and inspires. The other creates systems and accountability to bring the strategy to fruition.
It doesn’t matter if you are a large nonprofit or a tiny one. And it doesn’t matter if the roles of “leader” and “manager” are contained in one person or multiple people, as long as everyone is clear about who is which, and when. Sometimes, in larger nonprofits, the leader and the manager will be contained in two different people, or in several people (senior management team, board chair and CEO). And other times the executive director of a small nonprofit may need to play the role of leader and manager in equal measure.
However you do it, in order to be effective and sustainable as a nonprofit, both your board and your staff need to be led and managed well.
Ask yourself these questions to see if your nonprofit lacks leadership, management, or both:
- Does someone push us to ask hard questions, particularly about what the organization exists to do and whether we are actually doing it?
- Does someone encourage board and staff to articulate a long-term strategy and get excited by it?
- When times are tough, is there someone who effectively rallies board and staff and reminds them of the importance of your work?
- Is someone pushing the organization to expand its networks, relevance and reach far beyond our own walls?
- Does someone hold each of our board members accountable to show up, actively engage, and contribute to an effective and sustainable organization?
- Does someone ask those board members who are not performing to reform or resign?
- Does our staff have clear goals for their work and does someone regularly hold them accountable to meeting those goals?
- Are staff incentives (time off, salary increases, flexible time, promotions) directly and clearly tied to performance?
- Do board and staff have all of the tools they need to do their jobs well?
- Do we have effective systems (program delivery, data management, fundraising, board recruitment, staffing) in place?
If you answered “No” to some or all of these questions, your nonprofit may lack some key leadership or management capabilities. If that is the case, step up as a leader and encourage a hard conversation about where your nonprofit is lacking and how to fill those gaps.
And if you need some help figuring out what your nonprofit lacks or how to fill those gaps, check out the coaching I provide nonprofit boards and staffs, or download the Reinventing the Nonprofit Leader book.
Photo Credit: Wikimedia
Last month I was asked by Ted Bilich, CEO of Risk Alternatives — a Washington, DC firm helping nonprofits manage their organizational and financial risks — to participate in a podcast. This is part of their ongoing podcast series “About Risk” which talks to thought leaders about risk management and process improvement for nonprofits, small businesses, and startups.
In the podcast Ted and I talk about:
- How the nonprofit landscape has become more competitive
- Why nonprofits need a theory of change
- How and when to engage in strategic planning
- How nonprofits can determine if they are applying best practices
- The benefits of a financial model assessment
- How to address common risks involving a board of directors
- And much more
You can listen to the podcast below, or click here.
Photo Credit: Patrick Breitenbach
This spring I have been trumpeting the Performance Imperative, a detailed definition of a high-performing nonprofit released by the Leap Ambassador community in March. Today I continue the ongoing blog series describing each of the 7 Pillars of the Performance Imperative with Pillar #2: Disciplined, People-Focused Management.
With this second Pillar, the Performance Imperative obviously makes a distinction between “leaders” in Pillar 1, and “managers” in Pillar 2. There is a note in the Performance Imperative that “leaders” and “managers” are typically two separate people in nonprofits with budgets over $1 million. So this distinction, and perhaps this Pillar, applies only to larger nonprofits.
But I think there is actually application to any nonprofit. In any nonprofit there are leadership tasks (creating the vision, being the cheerleader, marshaling resources) and there are management tasks (making sure the trains run on time, putting each resource to its highest and best use). In smaller organizations both sets of tasks fall to the same person, yet they both still need to be performed well. So I think it behooves any size nonprofit to analyze whether they are BOTH leading and managing well.
Effective managers put organization resources to their highest and best use. They recruit, train and retain the right talent, they use data to make good decisions, they manage to performance, and they are accountable.
You can read a larger description of Pillar 2 in the Performance Imperative, but here are some of the characteristics of a nonprofit that exhibits Disciplined, People-Focused Management:
- Managers translate leaders’ drive for excellence into clear workplans and incentives to carry out the work effectively and efficiently.
- Managers…recruit, develop, engage, and retain the talent necessary to deliver on the mission.
- Managers provide opportunities for staff to see…how each person’s work contributes to the desired results.
- Managers establish accountability systems that provide clarity at each level of the organization about the standards for success and yet provide room for staff to be creative about how they achieve these standards.
- Managers acknowledge when staff members are not doing their work well…managers are not afraid to make tough personnel decisions so that the organization can live up to the promises it makes.
The Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) is an example of how strong management is necessary to create a culture of high-performance. CEO employs people entering parole in New York State in transitional jobs at government facilities while helping them access better paying, unsubsidized employment. CEO Chief Operating Officer, Brad Dudding described to me how CEO management created, over the past 10 years, a culture and system of high performance.
Here is his story:
In the early years, CEO focused program performance on meeting individual contract milestones, not a set of unified organizational outcomes. They were proficient in collecting data and reporting it to funders, but did not use data to track participant progress, to make course corrections, and to manage to short-term outcomes.
In 2004 the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation provided CEO with a multi-year capital investment to:
- Create a theory of change as a blueprint for program intervention and outcomes measurement.
- Develop a performance measurement system to track progress toward those outcomes.
- Nurture a performance culture that uses data to understand program progress, build knowledge and correct performance gaps.
First, CEO management had to agree on a theory of change and the specific outcomes for which the organization would hold itself accountable. Next, management shared the theory of change with staff and demonstrated how each staff member contributed to its achievement through an all staff event, follow-up trainings and consistent messaging that the organization was entering an exciting period of change. CEO then adopted a new performance measurement system to reinforce the theory of change.
But reorienting the organization was not easy. Not everyone was ready to embrace a new culture of performance accountability and data tracking. CEO management was initially surprised by staff resistance and responded impatiently with compliance measures. Looking back, not enough time was invested in staff training and promoting the value proposition of new changes. At times it was an enormous effort to get front line staff to track and use data everyday to ensure participant goals were being met.
But the tipping point came when CEO promoted early adopters of the data system to management positions. These new managers were comfortable operating in a data-driven environment and holding others accountable to use data to track program participants’ progress. Once there was a group of strong managers in place, CEO’s performance culture started to take hold and program outcomes improved.
By 2010, CEO was managing to annual performance targets and short-term outcomes through staff’s real-time documentation and data analysis.
In 2012, the results of a three-year randomized control trial showed that CEO’s program resulted in a reduction in recidivism of 16-22%. But the evaluation also uncovered a need to improve CEO’s strategies for advancing long-term employment and for connecting individuals to the full-time labor market. In response, CEO created a job retention unit and developed innovative job retention strategies, including training programs and financial incentives for participants.
In 2013, CEO entered the New York State Social Impact Bond, the first state-sponsored transaction, through which CEO will serve 2,000 high-risk parolees in New York City and Rochester between 2014 and 2018. If CEO hits benchmarks and reduces the use of prison and jail beds by program participants, investors will be repaid their principal and will receive a return of up to 12.5% by the U.S. Department of Labor and New York state.
The tenets of a performance based culture — supportive leadership, disciplined managers, goal setting, data collection and analysis to track and improve outcomes — are now fully accepted by CEO staff and reinforced by management. CEO now has a highly developed system of tactical performance management, which allows the organization to know on a daily basis if it is delivering on its promise to its participants.
Photo Credit: Australian Paralympic Committee
As a general rule, nonprofit leaders are a self-less lot. You are so driven by your passion for social change that you are willing to perform any and all tasks required to get the job done. But there is a critical calculation that so many nonprofit leaders neglect. And that is to understand the value of their time and allocate that most precious resource effectively.
Yes, you read that correctly.
As the leader of your nonprofit your time is your organization’s most precious resource. Sure, board members, other staff members, and donors are absolutely critical to the work. But without you, there would be nothing. You are the visionary, the cheerleader, the linchpin around which everything (and everyone) revolves.
There are only so many productive hours in the day, so any hour you spend on one task is an hour you don’t spend on another task. You must put each hour of your working day to its highest and best use. As the most important connector for your nonprofit, you should be outside the organization as much as possible meeting with allies, funders, prospects, decision-makers, advocates who can help move your mission forward.
If you are stuck inside your organization updating a database, cutting checks, filing, or putting out fires, you are missing a huge opportunity.
So you need to use your time more effectively. Here’s how to start:
Create a Strategy
When a nonprofit creates and then manages to an overall strategy there is less time spent putting out fires and more time achieving outcomes and goals. So convince your board and staff to create a strategic plan and then manage to that plan. Move your organization’s culture from the reactive to the strategic and watch how you (and your staff and board) get more accomplished in the same amount of time.
Manage To Goals, Not Tasks
Once you have a strategy in place, you can manage your staff to goals, instead of discrete tasks. Whenever possible, delegate whole projects instead of specific pieces. Give a staff person the end goal you have in mind and the tools they need to get there and then empower them to do it their way. Check in on a regular basis to see how they are doing, but resist the temptation to micromanage. In so doing you get more off your plate while giving your staff license for creativity and initiative.
Regularly Meet One-on-One With Staff
I know I’ve said it before, but I’m a HUGE fan of the management power of weekly one-on-one meetings with each member of your staff. There are so many benefits. Your staff interrupts you less frequently because they know they have your undivided attention once a week, you are more willing to delegate because you know you have regular check-in points, staff learn how to problem solve on their own, and (most importantly) you have more time to GET OUTSIDE.
Find Administrative Help
As head of your nonprofit you must free yourself, as much as possible, from paper pushing tasks like filing, database maintenance, accounting. If you have the budget, hire an administrative assistant. If you don’t have the budget, recruit a volunteer to provide office support until you can grow your financial model to support administrative help. And while you are at it, outsource your accounting to a freelance bookkeeper or virtual CFO. Don’t put your administrative support at the end of the list of things your nonprofit needs. The sooner you free up your time, the better off your entire organization will be.
Nonprofit leaders, stop selling yourself and your organization short. Your time has tremendous value. So think clearly about how you allocate that limited resource and find solutions that put your time to its highest and best use. Free yourself to be the connector, fundraiser, and leader your nonprofit so desperately needs.
Photo Credit: National Archives
I announced last month that I was recommitting to the Reader Question Series on the blog. I received some really great questions, thanks to all of you who submitted a question. As I read through the questions, I thought it might make sense to combine two of my new year’s resolutions (the relaunched Reader Question series and using more video on the blog) into this new series. So I’m going to start answering the Reader Questions via video. Below is my answer to this great question from a reader:
“The executive director is often so busy putting out the day-to-day fires that they lose time to work on the big strategic goals. How can an ED break the cycle of jumping from crisis to crisis?”
If you have a question you’d like me to answer in an upcoming Reader Question video, send it to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject heading “Reader Question.” I look forward to reading your questions. Thanks!
I launched a Reader Questions series on the blog a little less than a year ago, but I have to admit I have been lazy about soliciting questions for it. The one time I asked for reader questions I got great ones and did a couple of blog posts responding to those questions here and here. But then I got busy and stopped soliciting questions.
So I want to reinvigorate the Reader Questions series now. I’d love to more consistently answer questions from readers and turn it into a much more regular series.
And I need your help. I’d love to hear about what issues are really tripping you up, what hurdles you encounter, what you’d like to learn more about.
So send me your questions about:
- Getting your board moving
- Being up front with donors
- Empowering your staff
- Raising capacity capital
- Developing a financing plan
- Finding new donors
- Creating a strategic plan
- Articulating your message
- Growing a nonprofit
- And anything else…
Whatever you struggle with and want to learn more about. Because the beauty of it is, if you are struggling with something, there are probably 100 other people who are as well, and they’d love to learn from your experience.
So if you start sending me your questions, I promise to be more consistent about the series. You can submit your questions on the Reader Questions blog page, in the comments of this blog post, on the Social Velocity Facebook page, or by sending an email to email@example.com. And don’t worry, if your question is a sensitive one, you can ask to remain anonymous.
I can’t wait to hear your great questions. Thanks!
One of my resolutions this new year is to add more video to the Social Velocity site. I love watching video, and I’d love to see more nonprofits using the medium, so I thought I should probably follow suit. A few months ago I created a Social Velocity YouTube channel and will continue to add video to it over the course of the year. I also plan to do some video blogging this year, which I’m pretty excited about.
But today I want to introduce my new consulting video. Here I discuss how I consult with nonprofit clients. If you are reading this in an email, you can see the video by clicking here. Take a look!
I’m delighted to announce that a book I wrote with Peter Frumkin, head of the RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service at the University of Texas at Austin, and Bruno Manno, senior advisor for K–12 Education Reform at the Walton Family Foundation, has just been published by Harvard Education Press. The Strategic Management of Charter Schools: Frameworks and Tools for Educational Entrepreneurs looks at charter school case studies and applies management tools (like SWOT analysis, customer satisfaction surveying, balanced scorecard) to analyze what these schools could have done to be more successful. While the book focuses on charter schools, the tools and frameworks can easily be applied to any nonprofit organization.
Organized around three crucial challenges to charter school leaders—managing mission, managing internal operations, and managing the larger stakeholder environment—the book provides charter school leaders with tools and insights for achieving educational and organizational success. In its description of these managerial challenges, and in its detailed examinations of particular schools, the book offers a clear, credible approach to the efficient and sustainable management of what are still young and experimental educational institutions.
Frederick M. Hess, director of education policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute, says of the book:
The importance of this volume lies not in the prescription of best practices but in the strategic ‘toolbox’ of skills and frameworks that the authors share. For providers seeking better ways to promote both growth and quality, this book will prove invaluable. For policy makers, parents, philanthropists, and educators seeking to understand how to help charter schooling deliver on its promise, this volume will prove an invaluable resource. Finally, the authors’ savvy suggestions for aligning mission, institutional operations, and stakeholders offer a strategic vision that holds promise not only in the charter sector but also for those in traditional district schools.
Again, although the cases are all related to charter schools, the lessons and insights can and should be used by any nonprofit leader. From better financial management, to stronger mission alignment, to more accurate understanding of the needs of your various constituents, to more effective leadership, this book helps social change leaders create stronger, more effective organizations that will ultimately result in greater change.
You can learn more about the book here.