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social movements

Why Women Will Lead the Social Movement For Gun Control

As a mother and a human being, the Parkland, Florida school shooting on Wednesday cut me to the core. As I know it did so many of you.

And as someone who spends my time writing about and advising social change efforts, I am also curious about how growing momentum to create change to the obviously severe social problem of gun violence in America will evolve. Because it can often seem that gun violence is an impossible problem for America to solve. But as Daniel Kibblesmith put it on Twitter, it is not:

 

True, smoking was once so pervasive in America, and the tobacco lobby so strong that there was little hope that change would happen, but it has. There are now few places where you can smoke inside and smoking rates have dropped dramatically over the last 40 years. In 1965 almost 43% of American adults smoked, in 2014 only 17% did.

History shows that this pattern of social change repeats again and again — from the abolition of slavery, to women’s suffrage, to the legalization of interracial marriage. An issue becomes so egregious that it builds enough critical mass to force change.

Bloomberg did a fascinating graphic of 6 social issues and how quickly they went from a flash point of public interest to a change in federal policy. The issues ranged from prohibition, to women’s suffrage, to abortion. The amount of time that spanned between an issue’s flash point and change to federal law ranged from 2-19 years:

 

The idea is that once an issue becomes so important to the American public it is only a question of time (and relatively short time at that) before the issue moves through the states to eventually become a federal policy change. As Bloomberg writers Alex Tribou and Keith Collins put it:

“Social change in the U.S. appears to follow a pattern: A few pioneer states get out front before the others, and then a key event—often a court decision or a grassroots campaign reaching maturity—triggers a rush of state activity that ultimately leads to a change in federal law.”

The 10+ year social movement to legalize gay marriage is an excellent example of this. Launched in 2004 as a collaboration among many social change organizations, funders, and experts, by June 2015 (11 short years later) gay marriage became legal across the country.

So, what will it take for Americans, who overwhelmingly support common sense gun legislation, to rise up and convince their elected officials to make change? It is already beginning in many states, with hundreds of gun control laws passed at the state level since Sandy Hook. I think we will see a federal-level change to gun control in the next 5-10 years. It is within the realm of possibility to push the federal government to change gun laws.

And I honestly think that that push will come largely from moms. Women like me, who watched in horror as children the exact same age as my youngest son ran, arms locked with classmates, screaming in terror out of Sandy Hook Elementary and then just 5 years later watched again in horror as children the exact same as my oldest son shared video on SnapChat of the bloodshed they witnessed.

Let me tell you, there is hardly a more powerful force in this world than that of a mother wanting to protect her child. 2018 has been called “The Year of Women” because women are stepping up in record numbers to run for office, to advocate, to volunteer, and even take to the streets all in the name of social change. I think gun violence — violence that increasingly threatens to harm our own children — will compel women who are already stepping up to force change.

As a dear friend and fellow mother texted me Wednesday morning:

“Just reading all the politicians offer their bullshit condolences and take money from the NRA makes me sick.”

And as Margaret Mead (also a mother) famously said: “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world: indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.”

Yep. I’m telling you. Our leaders’ willingness to turn a blind eye to the daily carnage around us is wrong on every single level and it will and it must change. I don’t think moms are going to take it much longer. Change is coming. Just you watch.

Photo Credit: Slowking4 

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10 Great Social Innovation Reads: May 2017

May was another fascinating month in the world of social change. There are some interesting shifts happening among the institutions and movements working to improve black lives, new polls point to a surging American liberalism (not conservatism), the suburbs are no longer the route to the American dream, anti-hunger efforts may actually be perpetuating the problem, and a librarian who questioned the impact of Little Free Libraries received quite a backlash.

Below are my picks of the 10 best social change reads in May. But feel free to add to the list in the comments. And you can see a longer list by following me on Twitter @nedgington.

You can also see 10 Great Reads lists from past months here.

  1. The first 100 days of Trump’s presidency have been exhausting for the country. The Chronicle of Philanthropy offered some questions for philanthropist to think about after those first 100 days. And Trump’s budget recommendations, if adopted by Congress, could have pretty damaging effects on the nonprofit sector and the foundations that fund them.

  2. A more specific impact \ that the Trump Administration could have on the nonprofit sector would be to eliminate the Johnson Amendment. The 60 year old Amendment has prohibited churches and nonprofit organizations from any political campaigning. Robert Egger, founder and president of L.A. Kitchen and Vikki Spruill, president and CEO of the Council on Foundations, debated whether the repeal of the amendment would be a good or bad thing for the sector.

  3. Despite the fact that state and federal government is being led largely by Republicans right now, it looks like American populism may have a liberal, as opposed to conservative, bent according to some new polls. Ruy Teixeira from Vox analyzed recent poll data and argued that America is actually witnessing a liberal surge:  “Trump in the White House and the Republicans in control of Congress and most states…owes much more to the peculiar nature of the Electoral College, gerrymandering, structural GOP advantages in Congress, and poor Democratic strategy than to the actual views of the American public.”

  4. And that populism that is sweeping the country is beginning to target philanthropy. David Callahan argued that the underlying elitism of philanthropy must be laid bare: “America is in the midst of an epic backlash against elites, one that’s put a reality TV maestro in the White House. So far, philanthropy has been insulated from this broader convulsion, but there are good reasons for the sector to engage in its own introspection about elite power…There’s not yet much discussion about the bigger question regarding how much sway private philanthropy—and a growing class of savvy “super-citizens”—should have over public life in a democratic society like ours.” And Kristin A. Goss and Jeffrey M. Berry argued on the HistPhil blog that the populist surge is posing at least 3 challenges to foundations.

  5. There is something interesting happening in the efforts to improve the lives of African Americans. The NAACP fired its president Cornell William Brooks after only 3-years in the hopes that the organization could become more responsive to changing external circumstances. But Cyndi Suarez wondered whether this 100+ year old institution can adapt to and engage with growing social movements like Black Lives Matter.  And earlier in the month she described how BLM itself is evolving amid changing times.

  6. Jay A. Winsten from the Harvard Chan School of Public Health described how a national media strategy, even in today’s very fractured media environment, can move social change forward.

  7. Some new data in May showed giving differences between genders and generations, and the  Master of Public Administration program at the University of San Francisco created a nice infographic on The Current and Future State of Philanthropy.

  8. Something really interesting happened when a Toronto librarian questioned the claim that Little Free Libraries, the small birdhouse-like boxes of free books cropping up in neighborhoods around the country, are actually increasing literacy. People got really mad.

  9. Writing in CityLab, Richard Florida painted a pretty bleak picture of how the suburbs, once the destination for the growing middle class, are now crumbling: “Suburban growth has fallen out of sync with the demands of the urbanized knowledge economy. Too much of our precious national productive capacity and wealth is being squandered on building and maintaining suburban homes with three-car garages, and on the infrastructure that supports them, rather than being invested in the knowledge, technology, and density that are required for sustainable growth. The suburbs aren’t going away, but they are no longer the apotheosis of the American Dream and the engine of economic growth.”

  10. Finally, there’s a new book to add to your reading list: Andy Fisher’s Big Hunger: The Unholy Alliance between Corporate America and Anti-Hunger Groups. Fisher argues that anti-hunger nonprofits are perpetuating the underlying wealth inequality that causes hunger by aligning with corporations that are exacerbating poverty through low wages and job cuts.

Photo Credit: kyle rw

 

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10 Great Social Innovation Reads: April 2017

April saw a debate about whether or not crowdfunding is transforming philanthropy, critiques of Harvard Business School, a report on the lack of philanthropy in the Deep South, a first-person account of the effects of founder’s syndrome, and tools to help more funders engage in advocacy. Add to that a new Supreme Court Justice, some new data about fundraising, and two fascinating new books, and April was a very interesting month in the world of social change.

Below are my 10 favorite reads about nonprofits and philanthropy in April, but feel free to add to the list in the comments. And, as always, for a longer list, follow me on Twitter @nedgington.

You can also see past months’ 10 Great Reads lists here.

  1. The dramatic growth of person-to-person crowdfunding efforts may be fundamentally transforming philanthropy argued Ben Paynter in an interesting long read in FastCompany. As he puts it: “[This] vast pool of money [is] fundamentally shifting who is funding charitable work and how that work gets done.” But Eduardo Andino would seem to disagree. Writing in Philanthropy Daily he argues that crowdfunding is not all that different or disruptive: “As has always been the case, Americans give money when they see an organization with a mission they believe in or a person whose need moves them. GoFundMe simply allows more Americans to encounter more people in need of immediate assistance than ever before.”

  2. A new report on the state of philanthropy in the Deep South showed the dramatic discrepancy in per capita funding there versus other areas of the country. As Ruth McCambridge from The Nonprofit Quarterly described the findings of the report: “Funders do not invest in homegrown power-building efforts in the Black Belt because they are not drawn in the image of the more-built-up grantees they know well and favor.”

  3. Now is definitely the time for more philanthropists to engage in advocacy, and to help in that effort The Foundation Center released a suite of tools for funders interested in advocacy collaborations.

  4. Two new (and diametrically opposed) books came out in April. First, Duff McDonald’s The Golden Passport (reviewed by Andrew Ross Sorkin of The New York Times) took a hard look at Harvard Business School, which McDonald argued bred a greedy generation of corporate leaders. And for a completely opposite worldview, check out the new edition of The Power of Kindness: The Unexpected Benefits of Leading a Compassionate Life by Piero Ferrucci (reviewed by Mirielle Clifford on the PhilanTopic blog), which could be a balm for our divisive times.

  5. Linda Wood, Senior Director of Leadership Initiatives at the Haas Jr. Fund, encouraged other foundations to invest in the capacity not just of individual organizations, but also larger social movements. As she put it: “We need to be more attentive to the interplay between the strength and agility of leaders and organizations and the dynamics of their broader movements.” And Patrick Guerriero discussed the evolution of the social movement that resulted in marriage equality.

  6. I think I could probably very happily spend hours digging into Pew Research data. It is fascinating stuff, especially their recent 10 demographic trends shaping the U.S. and the world in 2017.

  7. Speaking of data, there was new fundraising data on donor retention and how more effective an in-person (versus email) solicitation is.

  8. An anonymous nonprofit staff member in the United Kingdom wrote a scathing critique in The Guardian of their nonprofit’s founder who has stayed at the organization too long.

  9. April saw the nomination, confirmation, and swearing in of a new Justice on the Supreme Court, and Michael Wyland provided an analysis of what the implications of a court with Justice Gorsuch could mean for the nonprofit sector.

  10. And finally, if you are feeling a bit overwhelmed by these challenging times, look no further than Steven Pressfield who wrote: “You were born for adversity. It’s in your DNA as much as it’s in the DNA of a shark or an eagle or a lion…Our stubby little ancestors left us not just the ability to endure adversity, but the capacity to thrive under conditions of adversity.” Yes!

Photo Credit: Andy Roberts

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10 Great Social Innovation Reads: March 2017

March offered lots of insight about how philanthropy should respond in the age of Trump. From investing in social movements, to getting involved in advocacy, to strengthening local communities, to giving more than the required 5%, there was much advice. Add to that a growing interest in how to combat “fake news,” steps to creating a digital marketing strategy, and the idea of employing migration as a tactic to combat poverty, March had much to read.

Below is my pick of the 10 best reads in world of social change in March, but feel free to add to the list in the comments. If you want a longer list, follow me on Twitter @nedgington.

And you can see past months’ 10 Great Reads lists here.

  1. Heinz Endowments President Grant Oliphant takes issue with the current administration’s distaste for the media and the arts (as evidenced by Trump’s elimination of the National Endowment for the Arts in his proposed budget). Oliphant argues that journalists and artists play a crucial role in a thriving society: “The right of artists and journalists to tweak the nose of power, to challenge what we believe, to criticize those in high places, to hold accountable people who otherwise might anoint themselves kings, cannot be abridged because we find it at times uncomfortable. It is that very discomfort that tells us they are doing their part in maintaining a healthy society.”

  2. Vocalizing dissent as Oliphant does is only one path available to philanthropy in these challenging times. Many people had other ideas for how philanthropy should respond, including funding social movementsgetting involved in advocacycountering the increase in hate crimes, strengthening local communities, and giving more than the typical 5% of assets. As Grantmakers for Effective Organizations President Kathleen Enright puts it: “We have a choice to make. We can succumb to the swirling and diverting streams of information that wash over us with every passing week. Or we can use this moment as a call to action, first to crystalize our values and determine what matters most to our institutions. And then to act in support of those values in new, bold and creative ways.”

  3. Philanthropic visionary Clara Miller, president of the Heron Foundation, describes what the foundation will do now that they’ve reached their goal of putting 100% of their assets toward mission. As she writes, “It’s becoming increasingly important to think and act holistically with money and influence within and beyond our sector, seeking impact on both Wall Street and Main Street.”

  4. The revelations that Russia used fake news to influence the U.S. presidential election added urgency to attempts to find solutions to the growing misinformation ecosystem. Pew Research offered a comprehensive report about the future of fake news. And writing in Nieman Reports Joshua Benton compares American distrust of journalism with American distrust of banks. And Marina Gorbis compares our current reality to the creation of the printing press in the mid-1400s, which ushered in political, religious and scientific revolutions.

  5. Speaking of what we can learn from history about today’s challenges, Harvard professor Tomiko Brown-Nagin provides 7 lessons from history for today’s social protests.

  6. Never one to shy away from controversy, Phil Buchanan takes to task those who argue that social problems can be solved by nonprofit and for-profit solutions equally well. As he puts it, “The fact is that in many, dare I say most, of the issue areas in which nonprofits are working to make a difference, there isn’t a way to do it that jibes very well with making a profit. And indeed, that is why the nonprofits were formed in the first place — because markets weren’t taking care of the issue!” Amen!

  7. Writing in his Nonprofit Chronicles blog, Marc Gunther argues that few anti-poverty interventions include the effective approach of encouraging the poor to migrate to areas with better opportunities.

  8. Large and aging nonprofit organization Greenpeace underwent a complete shift toward 21st century fundraising and advocacy efforts using technology.  This fascinating case study describes how they did it.

  9. David Mundy from GuideStar kicked off the first of a great multi-part series on how nonprofits can create their digital marketing strategy.

  10. And Nonprofit Tech for Good offered 24 Must-Read Fundraising and Social Media Reports for Nonprofits.

Photo Credit: Beraldo Leal 

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Speak Out and Be Counted

I had an ache in the pit of my stomach all weekend long. I get a stomach ache whenever something is very, very wrong. Friday’s Executive Order banning immigrants from seven Muslim-majority countries is so very wrong, and so fundamentally un-American.

I am an American because my ancestors at one point or another immigrated to this country because they thought it would offer better opportunities and/or more tolerance. And I have spent my career working in and with the nonprofit sector, which is fundamentally about giving voice and support to the oppressed.

For these reasons (and so many more) this executive order is completely anathema to me.

By yesterday my stomach was aching for some sort of salve. So here’s what I did:

  • I called my members of Congress — both of my Senators and my Representative, at both their D.C. and local offices to ask them to stand up against this immigration ban. And I will continue to do so every day. Several of their voicemail boxes were already full, so I took some comfort in the fact that others are as upset as I am. But I will not rest on that knowledge, I’ll keep trying to leave my own message.

  • I donated to the ACLU, who by the way, received $24 million in online donations from 350,000 people over the weekend (six times their normal annual online donations!). So again, there is comfort in numbers.

  • I emailed a message of solidarity to my client, the Muslim Public Affairs Council, which is an amazing group working tirelessly (and much harder these days) for the civil rights of American Muslims.

  • I’m continuing to follow resistance hashtags on Twitter like the 80+ alternative Twitter handles for the various government agencies that are no longer allowed to Tweet information at odds with the administration, and the #ThisIsYourLand and #Resistance hashtags, as well as the growing social movement of protest and resistance.

  • I will continue to work to encourage the nonprofit sector — the moral compass of this great country — to be bold and speak out against anything that goes against the fundamental values of our country.

As Charles Blow wrote yesterday in the New York Times:

“America will not stand for this, so if obsequious conservative politicians or lily-livered liberal ones won’t sufficiently stand up to this demagogic dictator, then the American people will do the job themselves. Over the weekend, protesters spontaneously popped up at airports across the country to send an unambiguous message: Not in our name; not on our watch. It is my great hope that this will be a permanent motif of Trump’s term. If no one else is going to fight for American values, it falls to the American people themselves to do so.”

Yes, that is right. As Americans, we’ve been training for this since we had our first civics lesson back in middle school.

And as social change leaders, we all have an obligation to speak up.  As Greg Oliphant put it “There are truths that need to be spoken now, spoken out loud and unapologetically by people who know them to be true. Spoken with love, yes, but also fierce conviction…They are where we as a sector…must find our voice, in holding them out not as criticism but as the True North we still must point towards, the star we still see and hold steady in our gaze despite attempts to obscure it.”

If you too felt sickened by the events of this past weekend, get engaged — speak out and be counted. Do not sit back and wait for someone else to do it.

Not in our name. Not on our watch.

Photo Credit: Miraage.clicks

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5 Nonprofit Trends to Watch in 2017

It’s that time of year again, where we take a look back at the year drawing to a close, and forward to the year ahead. We all know that 2016 was rough (and if you want to wallow for a minute or two, check out John Oliver’s cathartic send off to 2016).

But I am ever the optimist, so I’m hopeful that 2017 will be better. In particular I think the upheaval of this year provides an opportunity for social change to mobilize. So 2017 could be an interesting year to watch.

Below are what I predict (hope) will happen in 2017. But I make no promises.

And if you want to see how I did in past years, you can check out my 5 Nonprofit Trends to Watch lists from 2011, 2012, 201320142015, or 2016.

  1. An Expanding Definition of Equity 
    As philanthropy continues to agonize over the presidential election and what it means and what philanthropy missed, I think there may be a reckoning that philanthropy’s growing interest in equity and inclusion must expand to include those in the rural, working class who feel they’ve been left behind. Whether this means increased philanthropic investments in “red” America, it remains to be seen, but I believe philanthropy will seek to understand how they might help to heal a divided nation.

  2. Greater Use of Networks and Movements for Social Change
    There is no doubt that social change must cross organizational boundaries in order to become systemic, so nonprofits will (I hope) increasingly recognize that they must break down their walls and become more networked in order to achieve their goals. From social movements like #BlackLivesMatter and the widespread networks working on LGBTQ rights, social change leaders will increasingly recognize that they cannot go it alone. There will be more organized efforts to marshal resources toward larger social change.

  3. Growing Recognition Among Millennials of the Role of Institutions in Social Change
    But networks and movements are not enough — institutions also play a critical role in social change. And Millennials in particular tend to be anti-institution — we saw their distaste for political institutions in their low voter turnout rates in November’s election. So those Millennials pushing for reforms will need to figure out how to connect their movements and networks to the requisite political and social institutions.

  4. More Nonprofit Advocacy
    Continuing to be squeezed by shrinking government dollars and a challenging political environment, nonprofits will increasingly recognize the need to embrace advocacy as a social change tool. Formerly worried about jeopardizing the legal status of their organization, nonprofit boards and staffs will become more willing to take the risk and work to help policymakers and their influencers understand the need for their social change work.

  5. More Analysis of What Nonprofit Financial Sustainability Requires
    This one is truly optimistic, I know, but I really believe that the discussions about the Overhead Myth and funding a nonprofit’s real costs will give way to a larger conversation (and research) around what it takes to create financial resilience in the nonprofit sector. Funders and nonprofit leaders are slowly starting to recognize that they must invest in financial models in order to be successful. So I’m hopeful that there will be a growing body of research into what works and what doesn’t, more case studies about nonprofits that have found financial sustainability, and a growing push to wield the money sword in the nonprofit sector.

Photo Credit: James Vaughan

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Thursday, December 8th, 2016 Advocacy, Innovators 1 Comment

Moving Toward a Network Mindset: An Interview with Jane Wei-Skillern

jane wei-skillernIn this month’s Social Velocity interview, I’m talking with Jane Wei-Skillern.

Jane is the co-author of the groundbreaking 2008 Stanford Social Innovation Review article, “The Networked Nonprofit,” and a leading researcher on networks for social change. She is a senior fellow at the Center for Social Sector Leadership at the University of California Berkeley’s Haas School of Business and has also served on the faculties of the London, Harvard, and Stanford Business Schools.  For the past 15 years, her research has focused on high impact nonprofit networks, network leadership and network cultures.

You can read other interviews with social changemakers in the Social Velocity interview series here.

Nell: Jane, you and Sonia Marciano arguably coined the term “networked nonprofit” with your 2008 Stanford Social Innovation Review article of the same name. But is the idea of creating and using networks to create social change necessarily new to the space? How is a networked nonprofit different now than in the past, or what has changed?

Jane: In our article, we were most interested in the ways in which leaders and organizations catalyzed and engaged in collaborations successfully. Thus, the focus in the article was much more on the culture, or the norms and values, of what makes collaborations succeed, rather than a strict definition or structure of what collaborations should look like.

The concept of partnerships, collaboration, alliances, networks, or any number of other terms we could use, are of course nothing new in the nonprofit sector. In fact, we are not particular about the terminology that is used to describe collaborative efforts or whether they choose to use the term “networked nonprofit” at all. These lessons were drawn from detailed case studies of successful networks, many of which had been operating for years or decades before we studied them as researchers.

At the same time, we used the term “networked nonprofit” to describe a particular approach to collaboration, one that was oriented around social impact above all else, that emerged from the bottom up by community members in the field, as a way to address problems more effectively, rather than collaboration for collaboration’s sake. The networks were unique in that while they might have been catalyzed by a few instrumental actors initially, all participants worked in true partnership, as peers and equals to drive toward field level impact.

Consequently, they were able to achieve significant commitment, investment and support from participants, and generate leverage on resources and capacity, to achieve mission impact much more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably. It is this experience and wisdom about what was working well in the field that we wanted to bring attention to, especially at a time when so many in the field were struggling to scale impact through individual social entrepreneurs/social enterprises by proliferating program/organization innovations, building organizational capacity, scale, and brands.

Nell: How is the concept of a network different than or related to the concept of a social movement, like BlackLivesMatter? Are social movements the same or different than networks? 

Jane: I believe that the concepts that enable social movements to succeed are very similar to those that would enable networked nonprofits to succeed.  Social Movement scholars and analysts have highlighted four stages of successful social movements which were succinctly described in this article. These four stages are:

  1. A community forms around a common goal
  2. The community mobilizes resources
  3. The community finds solutions (what I call “fourth options”)
  4. The movement is accepted by (or actually replaces) the establishment

In this respect, networked nonprofits are very similar. The network emerges around a common goal, rather than a particular program or organizational model. The community mobilizes the resources from throughout the network, and based on existing relationships in the community.  The solution is emergent and comes from the community members themselves, rather than being pushed from the top down. And finally, once a network is up and running and proves itself to be effective, it becomes the primary vehicle for change, rather than the individual organizations themselves.

Nell: You recently launched a new site offering resources to those interested in becoming a networked leader. What is your goal with this new site?

Jane: The stated mission of the website is: “To champion network leaders, and the networks that they serve, to nurture change on the challenges that dwarf us all.” It’s an interesting story about how we came to create this website together.

In early 2016, I had the opportunity to work with Children and Nature Network to share my research on network leadership through a series of webinars with their network members. Through this project I got to know Amy Pertschuk, co-founder of Children and Nature Network, who found the ideas so compelling that she offered her services pro bono to help develop a web site to share resources.

Initially, Amy asked if we should create a domain name focused on me and my research. I immediately realized that that would be too limiting. In order to achieve leveraged and scalable impact through this website, I absolutely needed to practice what I preach and make the site much less about me and much more about championing network leaders and the networks of which they are a part.

It also made sense to reach out to some of my most inspiring and trusted colleagues who have deep experience leading, developing, and writing about networks themselves to develop the website jointly. We have all worked to build this site to support experienced and aspiring network leaders. The resources on the site have been collected and curated by a community of practitioners and network supporters working to increase the impact of social sector leaders and organizations by promoting the principles of successful networks.

Nell: Is the networked approach right for every nonprofit, or does it apply better to certain types of leaders or organizations? And how can a nonprofit leader interested in this approach move forward with it?

Jane: I like that you emphasize that it is an approach rather than a structure or model. Sometimes people think that they need to reorganize or restructure in order to be a network. Instead, I view it as a mindset and leadership approach that can be used by people in all types of organizations, whether in the private, public, or nonprofit sectors. Though I do believe that it is particularly relevant in the social sectors where the primary objective is, or should be, to generate social value that is not owned or captured by any single entity, in contrast to private sector organizations whose objective is to generate shareholder value.

The network leadership principles focus on: mission before organization; governance through trust-based relationships, rather than top down controls; promotion of others rather than oneself; and building of constellations rather than stars. These can be applied at all levels of an organization, from the executive suite to leaders out in the field. It is a shift from traditional leadership approaches that focus on the charismatic individual who has formal authority to get things done, to a more open-sourced approach to addressing social problems.

Network leaders start with the mission and engage others (especially those they seek to serve) to mobilize resources to support them doing what they would have wanted to do for themselves. It is a significant departure from doing ‘to’ and instead working with others as peers, equals, and true partners.

Photo Credit: Harvard Business School

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Making Philanthropy More Equitable: An Interview with Aaron Dorfman

Aaron DorfmanIn today’s Social Velocity interview, I’m talking with Aaron Dorfman, President and CEO of the National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy (NCRP), a research and advocacy organization that works to ensure America’s grantmakers are responsive to the needs of those with the least wealth, opportunity and power. Before joining NCRP in 2007, Dorfman served for 15 years as a community organizer with two national organizing networks, spearheading grassroots campaigns on a variety of issues. He also serves on the board of The Center for Popular Democracy.

You can read other interviews in the Social Velocity Interview Series here.

Nell: What is your take on recent concerns about donor advised funds locking too much philanthropic money away from directly reaching nonprofits? Is the recent growth of DAFs a good thing or a bad thing, or is it more complicated?

Aaron: It’s definitely complicated.

On the one hand, I’m sympathetic to how much easier DAFs have made things for donors. I do some of my own charitable giving through a small DAF, and I love the convenience of it. I have no doubt that other donors also find DAFs to be a very helpful development in philanthropy.

However, many of the concerns raised by critics are also valid.

There is little or no evidence that DAFs have contributed to an increase in overall charitable giving, for example, and there certainly isn’t any evidence that the funds have boosted giving to historically marginalized communities. So, if there has been no increase in overall giving, then what DAFs have done is to delay the giving.

Another concern is that DAFs provide donors with significant tax advantages over private foundations – but at the cost of transparency. Most DAFs don’t accept unsolicited proposals, and reporting by sponsoring institutions doesn’t identify grants with individual funds. Practically speaking, that means that most of these funds are inaccessible to most nonprofits. They’re traditionally housed at community foundations, but they’re not directly open to receiving proposals from community-based nonprofits, though proposals may be steered there by foundation staff acting as gatekeepers.

We found this to be true in a recent in-depth assessment we conducted of the Oregon Community Foundation. This was especially the experience of nonprofits serving and/or led by communities of color, who already have the hardest time accessing mainstream philanthropic support.

The lack of access by community nonprofits is even more troubling when you consider the fastest growing of the DAFs: the funds located at the giant financial industry warehouses like Schwab, Fidelity and Vanguard. There, no one is putting nonprofit proposals in front of donors who might be interested.

The lack of adequate reporting reinforces this problem of access: since the IRS does not require DAF sponsors to report which funds made which grants, grant seekers cannot take advantage of reports to identify potentially like-minded donors. (DAF sponsors have begun making greater amounts of information available about their grants, but what they provide is of limited help to grantseeking nonprofits because they don’t identify which funds made which grants.) This is further compounded by the fact that at present the major foundation database (Foundation Center) doesn’t systematically track giving by the likes of Vanguard, Schwab and Fidelity, most of whose funding simply doesn’t appear in the database.

Nell: Some people have argued that since philanthropy itself is built upon an inequitable market economy it can serve to reinforce that inequality. Is there a disconnect, or can we expect philanthropy to appreciably contribute to greater equity? What do you make of the debates about philanthropy that redistributes wealth and philanthropy that simply reinforces power and economic imbalances?  

Aaron: There is no question that philanthropy can and has done both of these things.

When the Ford Foundation provides support for grassroots community organizing, or for litigation to protect and expand civil rights, that’s an example of philanthropy clearly contributing to greater equity.

When Atlantic Philanthropies, The California Endowment and other funders supported advocacy that contributed to the passage of the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), that, too, was a case of philanthropy appreciably contributing to a more equitable society.

These are just a couple of examples of funders who understand their goals and their vision for society to be disruptive to the status quo; funders who understand the role unjust economic systems have played in the issues they would like their dollars to help overcome. The “disconnect” between market economics and progressive philanthropy is not impossible to overcome, and many of the more than 200 grantmakers that have signed on to NCRP’s Philanthropy’s Promise initiative are leading the way in showing other funders how to do just that.

However, when certain foundations support elite universities, when they invest only in white-led cultural organizations that emphasize European-American culture, or when they invest in advocacy to privatize public education at the expense of low-income communities – then you have some clear examples of how philanthropy reinforces inequality.

There was a great series of articles published recently in The Nation that explores these ideas, and what the future of philanthropy might be for those of us who hope to see a greater philanthropic contribution to fairness, equity and justice.

Nell: You have written before about philanthropy’s historical role in funding social movements. What do you make of philanthropy in the Black Lives Matter movement? How involved has philanthropy been, and how involved do you think philanthropy should be?

Aaron: There is a paradox here. Philanthropy has always under-funded social movements. However, philanthropic funding has also been essential to the success of social movements. We documented this in a 2014 paper Freedom Funders: Philanthropy and the Civil Rights Movement, 1955-1965.

The Black Lives Matter movement has thus far received very little support from institutional philanthropy. A group of foundation staff members have formed Funders for Justice as a way to learn together and to accelerate the flow of funding to the movement. They’re making headway, but the movement is still receiving very little support. Some individual donors, mostly younger and working through the Solidaire Network, have been able to move money more quickly to the movement.

The Hill-Snowdon Foundation, a small family foundation based in D.C., has been a real leader on this. They dipped into their corpus and have devoted new resources to creating the Making Black Lives Matter initiative and are attempting to organize their peers in philanthropy to invest in black-led organizing and in the Movement for Black Lives. The foundation is a past winner of the NCRP Impact Awards, which recognizes smart philanthropy that empowers underserved communities and achieves real results.

Also, Black professionals in philanthropy have been organizing through the Association of Black Foundation Executives and its Philanthropic Action for Racial Justice initiative.

I should add, too, that movement leaders have rejected some philanthropic support that was offered to them because it came with too many strings attached. In some respects, it’s been a good thing that the movement has not been dependent on philanthropy, since foundation support so often serves to rein in radical social movements.

Nell: The nonprofit sector has historically stayed away from advocacy work, but that seems to be changing. What role do you think nonprofits can and should play in advocacy, and will there be more of a push for that in the future?

Aaron: Advocacy and community organizing are among the best ways for foundations and nonprofits to leverage their limited dollars in pursuit of their missions. By changing public policies and/or the regulatory framework, we can transform society and build the kind of nation we all want to inhabit. Any nonprofit or foundation that is serious about achieving its mission must understand how advocacy fits into their overall strategy.

NCRP has challenged grantmakers to devote at least 25% of grant dollars to funding nonprofit advocacy and organizing, but fewer than 100 of the largest 1,000 foundations in the country meet that benchmark. The number of serious advocacy funders is increasing, but slowly.

Nonprofit advocates bring the voices of people and communities to policy makers. They are a greatly needed counter balance to the growing influence of corporate lobbyists, who often advocate only the narrowest self-interests of their industry. I think many, many people in our sector understand this and that we will see an expansion of nonprofit advocacy in the coming years, and that an increasing number for foundations and high net worth donors will provide ever-increasing resources for that advocacy work.

Photo Credit: NCRP

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